Jun 24, 2012

Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS)

Assessment is a vital component of education as it informs teachers, parents and the learners’ themselves about their progress in the learning curve, besides helping teachers and school administrators assess the effectiveness of teaching methods and school activities conducted to complement the teaching and learning process.
On Dec 17, 2010, the Cabinet agreed to introduce School-Based Assessment, or Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS), as part of the Education Transformation Plan to realign the education system from one that focuses largely on academic excellence to a more holistic assessment.
PBS emphasises assessment for learning and assessment of learning to ensure a more systematic mastery of knowledge.
PBS assesses each child holistically, taking into account the learner’s overall well-being (including the intellectual, emotional, spiritual and physical aspects) in tandem with the National Education Philosophy, as well as the Standard Curriculum for Primary Schools (KSSR).
PBS was introduced last year in all government and government-aided primary schools, and this year in all government and government-aided secondary schools. Thus Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) in 2016 and Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) 2014 will be revamped to accommodate the transformation.

What is PBS?
PBS is a holistic form of assessment which assesses the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains, encompassing the intellectual, emotional, spiritual and physical aspects. PBS embraces both academic and non-academic fields.
Teachers are given due recognition and have the autonomy to conduct formative assessment during the learning process and also summative assessment at the conclusion of a learning unit or any other suitable time during the school year at their own discretion, taking into account their pupils’ readiness.
There are four components in the PBS; namely, Central Assessment; School Assessment; Assessment of Physical, Sports and Co-curricular Activities and Psychometric Assessment.
Central assessment involves one or more tasks set by the Examinations Syndicate but administered and graded by teachers based on scoring rubrics provided by the central body.
School assessment is set, administered, graded and reported by the school based on the requirements of the curriculum.
Learners’ participation and involvement in sports and co-curricular activities are recorded and reported in Assessment of Physical, Sports and Co-curricular Activities. Thus co-curricular activities also have a bearing on a pupil’s overall achievement.
Psychometric assessment is another non-academic component that measures pupils’ innate and acquired abilities.

Why PBS?
The objectives of the PBS are:
·To enhance the meaningfulness of assessment where the focus is more on pupils’ development and growth in learning rather than merely on their achievements in the form of scores or grades;
·To reduce the over-reliance and over-dependence on data (grades and scores) obtained through central examinations in getting information about pupils in the school system;
·To empower the school and teachers to conduct quality assessment of and for learning, involving their own pupils. Therefore school assessment will be given its due recognition and acknowledgement, and a significant place in the overall assessment system; and,
·To ensure the performance of pupils is comparable to accepted world standards in various areas of knowledge, skills, and competence, with the introduction of Standard-Referenced assessment in PBS.

What subjects are assessed through PBS?
PBS is used to assess all subjects taught in primary and lower secondary schools.

How do teachers implement PBS?
Teachers conduct formative assessment during the learning process and also summative assessment, which is normally carried out at the conclusion of a learning unit or at the end of a semester or at the end of the year.
This does not mean that teachers have to create test papers or handouts as instruments every time they wish to assess a pupil’s achievement. Teachers may carry out creative activities that are fun, to gather information about their pupils’ learning progress.
Homework, quizzes, question and answer sessions and even observations are all examples of activities which teachers could use as instruments to assess pupils’ development and growth.
The only difference now is that teachers have to record pupils’ learning progress systematically.
In order to help teachers record and report pupils’ progress, the Examinations Syndicate has developed the PBS Management System (SPPBS) which is web-based. SPPBS is also available in the standalone version for schools which do not have access to the Internet.

How is PBS different?
PBS concurs with the Standard Referenced Assessment in which pupils’ achievements are measured against a Performance Standard (Standard Prestasi) which is developed by the Examinations Syndicate and mapped from the standard curriculum.
Performance Standard explains the performance or mastery of a pupil in a particular field he undertakes within a learning period based on an identified benchmark.
Standard Referenced Assessment allows teachers as well as parents to trace and measure each pupil’s progress based on his performance measured against a set of performance indicators.
Thus, a learner’s achievement is no longer measured by comparing his grades/scores with those of his peers. In this manner, a learner only competes with himself.
Therefore a learner’s achievement is no longer gauged by his position in class. Instead his achievement is ranked with reference to bands One to Six; One being the lowest and Six the highest.

What are bands?
Learners’ achievements are reported with reference to Bands rather than Grades A,B,C etc, or raw scores, eg. 85%.
Band One shows that a learner tahu or knows. For example, in Mathematics, a Year One learner is able to recognise numbers 1,2,3 ...
Band Two reflects tahu dan faham or knows and understands, which in Mathematics refers to the ability to understand the value of numbers; for example, eight is less than nine, four is more than three etc.
Band Three records that a learner tahu, faham dan boleh buat, which shows that he is able to apply knowledge acquired. In Mathematics, Band Three shows that a learner can add, subtract, divide and multiply.
A learner who has attained Band Three is considered to have acquired the basic skills pertaining to the subject.
A learner who attains Band Four (tahu, faham dan boleh buat dengan beradab) shows the ability to solve an elementary mathematical operation using the correct protocol.
A Band Five (tahu, faham dan boleh buat dengan beradab) reflects the learner’s ability to solve problems. For example, if a spring chicken costs RM5, how many chickens can Ali buy with RM10?
Finally, a learner who is awarded a Band Six demonstrates the ability to make a value judgement and is creative or innovative in solving mathematical problems. For example, the blue shirt costs RM30 but it is on offer at 50% discount, thus it is better value compared to the same quality shirt on sale at RM20 nett.
Band Three is equal to a passing grade. Thus pupils who fail to achieve Band Three will be supported through remedial work to help them achieve a minimum Band Three.
PBS makes it possible for teachers to provide immediate feedback to pupils at each stage of the learning curve. The feedback based on the Performance Standard will enable teachers and pupils to identify their strengths and weaknesses during the learning process.
Thus, early detection of pupils’ inability to master a skill should enable the teachers to formulate remedial tasks to help them improve their learning and achievement accordingly.
Again, it is wise to remember that pupils are assessed against a set of performance indicators and not compared to the achievements of their peers.
Hence PBS enables learners’ to advance at their own pace in a less stressful learning environment.

Would PBS further burden teachers?
The main focus of PBS is assessment for and of learning. Assessment should be integrated in the learning process and be used to enhance pupils’ mastery of learning. If managed and implemented wisely, teachers would find PBS beneficial and less burdensome.
To ensure the smooth sailing of PBS, two applications – PBS Management System or SPPBS (Sistem Pengurusan Pentaksiran Berasakan Sekolah) and PAJSK (Pentaksiran Aktiviti Jasmani, Sukan dan Kokurikulum) – were developed to ensure teachers are not further burdened with clerical duties.
The applications store data pertaining to learners’ achievement which can be easily retrieved to report learners’ strengths and areas where more help is needed to parents and other interested parties.

What about teacher bias?
Teacher bias is largely reduced through quality assurance which ensures the reliability and validity of assessment outcomes.
Teachers are required to file evidence of pupils’ work as proof that the learner has attained the necessary skills to merit the bands they are awarded. In this context, quality assurance for PBS implementation is maintained through the process of mentoring, monitoring, moderation and detection at various levels.
Mentoring is the process of assisting, facilitating and guiding teachers to carry out PBS according to the correct procedures and principles of PBS.
Monitoring ensures that the correct procedures have been adhered to ensure the reliability and credibility of the assessment outcome.
Standardisation ensures uniformity of scores with reference to the Performance Standards based on the rubrics of an assignment.
Detection is the process that evaluates the strength, weaknesses and effectiveness of assessment tools.

Is the PBS a new invention?
No, it is not. Question and answer sessions, quizzes, homework and class work are all tools of assessment that have been employed by teachers to gauge their learners’ understanding. Teaching and learning is more fun and meaningful when assessment is cleverly designed and conducted.

PBS is being introduced as part of the National Transformation Programme to produce world-class human capital. It is one of the measures taken by the Malaysian Education Ministry to enhance pupils’ mastery of learning through the national assessment system and it is in-line with the Educational Transformation Plan.
The assessment transformation introduced by the Education Ministry via the PBS presents the idea that central examinations like the UPSR and PMR are no longer the sole form of evaluation in measuring pupils’ achievement.
Through the PBS, the ministry aims to help pupils’ realise their potential in both academic as well as non-academic fields within a learning environment that is more stress-free.
In a nutshell, PBS is an arduous endeavour that demands total commitment from teachers and school administrators to help each child reach their full potential.

Jun 10, 2012

A good teacher

You have the ability to bond with your students, to understand and resonate with their feelings and emotions. To communicate on their level. To be compassionate with them when they are down and to celebrate with them when they are up. 

Positive Mental Attitude
You are able to think more on the positive and a little less on the negative. To keep a smile on your face when things get tough. To see the bright side of things. To seek to find the positives in every negative situation. To be philosophical.

Open to change
You are able to acknowledge that the only real constant in life is change. You know there is a place for tradition but there is also a place for new ways, new ideas, new systems, and new approaches. You don't put obstacles in your way by being blinkered and are always open and willing to listen to others' ideas.

Role Model
You are the window through which many young people will see their future. Be a fine role model.

You are able to motivate your students by using creative and inspirational methods of teaching. You are different in your approach and that makes you stand out from the crowd. Hence the reason why students enjoy your classes and seek you out for new ideas.

Sense of Humour
You know that a great sense of humour reduces barriers and lightens the atmosphere especially during heavy periods. An ability to make your students laugh will carry you far and gain you more respect. It also increases your popularity.

Presentation Skills
You know that your students are visual, auditory or kinaesthetic learners. You are adept at creating presentation styles for all three. Your body language is your main communicator and you keep it positive at all times. Like a great orator you are passionate when you speak. But at the same time you know that discussion and not lecturing stimulates greater feedback. 

You know that the aggression, negative attitudes and behaviours that you see in some of your students have a root cause. You know that they are really scared young people who have come through some bad experiences in life. This keeps you calm and in control of you, of them and the situation. You are good at helping your students de-stress.

You know that no one is more important in the world than anyone else. You know that everyone has a place in the world. You respect your peers and your students. Having that respect for others gets you the respect back from others. 

You know that you can change a young person's life by helping them to realise their potential, helping them to grow, helping them to find their talents, skills and abilities. 

You are passionate about what you do. Teaching young people is your true vocation in life. Your purpose in life is to make a difference. 

Willing to Learn
You are willing to learn from other teachers AND your students. Although knowledgeable in your subject you know that you never stop learning.

Acid rain and ozone depletion


Combustion of fossil fuels (in power stations, domestic & industrial boilers)
Releases sulphur dioxide & oxides of nitrogen (NO & NO2)
Both the gases combine with water vapour formed sulphuric acid & nitric acid
They fall to earth as acid rain (with pH less than 5)

The soil becomes very acidic
Thus, unsuitable for cultivation of crops
Causes leaching of minerals (such as potassium, calcium, magnesium)
Affects growth of crops
Photosynthetic tissues are destroyed.
Reduce the producers.
Germination of seed & growth of young seedling is inhibited.
Insoluble aluminium ions accumulate in lakes & rivers (due to leaching)
This can kill aquatic organisms (excessive secretion of mucus by fish gills)
Kill phytoplanktons (that affects the food chain)
Acidic soil releases ions of certain heavy metals (Eg. mercury, lead, cadmium)
This can contaminate supply of drinking water.
Metal railings, steel, cars, bridges, underground pipes corrode
Corrosion of sandstone & limestone.                                                   
Ways to overcome
Use scrubbers that clean up emissions from power stations & industrial plants
Use catalytic converters that clean up emissions from vehicle exhaust

Increase level of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons
CFCs used in coolants in air conditioners / refrigerators // propellants is aerosol cans // foaming agents making styrofoam / polystyrene 
(Once in the atmosphere) CFCs are broken down by UV rays into chlorine radicalsChlorine radicals break down ozone molecules (O3)

Ozone depletion causes direct exposure to UV radiation.
Prolong exposure causes skin cancer, cataracts & sunburns
UV rays also weaken immune system / decreases body resistant against infectious disease
UV rays reduces nutrient contents & crop yields
Leaf cells & chlorophyll are easily damaged
UV rays also kill microbes & phytoplankton
Leads to increase in the earth temperature / global warming
Ways to overcome
Reduce / Stop uses of CFCs
Replace CFCs with HCFCs or HFCs.